The Creek Indians were a compilation of many small tribes controlling most of the south east united states. The alliance was ever changing as different tribes joined and left the confederacy. Each tribe maintained their own political governing and land holdings as the came and went from the Creek Indian Nation. Unlike the tribes of their nomadic cousins, the Creek Indians were settled. They built stationary thatched huts around the ceremonial center called Pascova.
The Muskogee's, as the called themselves, problems began in the 1600's with the
battle at Slaughter Gap. The Creek's and the Cherokee's fought for resource rights
in the south east. The Creek Indians were then divided into the Upper Creeks
and the Lower Creeks.
In 1813 a civil war broke out within the Creek Nation. The Upper Creeks, known as the Red Sticks, attacked the Lower Creeks and their American Allies, to show their resistance to the white immigration civilizations. As close to 250 were slaughtered the Red Sticks took over Fort Mims, an American outpost near Mobile, Alabama. Responding to the spreading panic, nearly 3,000 Red Sticks were killed at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, led by General Andrew Jackson. The remaining Upper Creek Indians were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, ending conflict and giving 20 million acres to the United States. That 20 million acres is now the state of Alabama. The Treaty of Indian Springs was signed by the Lower Creek Indians giving most of their land to Georgia.
Although the Treaty of Indian Springs was nullified by John Quincy Adams and the new Treaty of Washington put in place, the Georgian Governor Troup forcefully began moving the Indians. Without Federal help to back up the new treaty, the Creeks had no choice, but to leave Georgia. The remaining land of the Upper Creeks was divided into individuals lots. The owners had their choice to sell and move or to stay and obey the laws of the state. The Creeks that chose to stay were defrauded out of there land and were forcibly removed.